DNA Gets Away: Scientists Catch The Rogue Molecule That Can Trigger Autoimmunity

dna

 

From Monash University.

 

A research team has discovered the process – and filmed the actual moment – that can change the body’s response to a dying cell. Importantly, what they call the ‘Great Escape’ moment may one day prove to be the crucial trigger for autoimmune diseases like arthritis.

The research team, led by Professor Benjamin Kile from Monash University’s Biomedicine Discovery Institute (BDI), has discovered – and filmed – the exact moment when DNA escapes out of the mitochondria (the organelles inside cells that produce energy) during cell death. The study, published today in the journal Science, involved major collaborators from the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute’s Janelia Research Campus in the US.

Mitochondria are the ultimate double agent; they are essential to keep cells alive, but when damaged, they can trigger the body’s own immune system with potentially devastating consequences. Because the DNA inside mitochondria (mtDNA) has many similarities with bacterial DNA (they share common ancestry), the body reacts to its presence outside the mitochondria, or indeed, outside the cell, as if under attack from invading pathogens. It is a similar failure to distinguish ‘self’ from ‘non-self’ that underlies inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

 

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